Symptoms: broad area pain and spinal stiffness.
Consequence: Owing to pain and stiffness, spinal range of motion would shrink gradually and eventually develop “spinal fusion”.
Cause: Ankylosing spondylitis is believed to be genetically inherited. Carriers of the HLA-B27 gene would be more vulnerable to ankylosing spondylitis.
Ankylosing spondylitis: Ankylosing spondylitis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the spine and the sacroiliac joint, which would cause pain and joint stiffness over broad spinal region. Over time, chronic spinal inflammation (spondylitis) can lead to a complete cementing together (fusion) of the vertebrae, known as ankylosis.
Medications: aspirin, NSAIDs
Physiotherapy: electrical modalities, e.g. shortwave diathermy, ultrasound, interferential therapy would be used to relieve inflammatory responses and release muscle spasm. Spinal mobilization exercises help maintain the range of motion of the spine.
TENS: domestic use for symptomatic relief.